Carlos Serrão

as minhas notas e página pessoal…

Estudo DRM da APDSI

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A APDSI vai apresentar no próximo dia 28 de Junho um estudo sobre a “Gestão de Direitos Digitais” (DRM), pelas 18 horas no Átrio da Casa do Futuro da Fundação Portuguesa das Comunicações.

Já estão a ser programadas algumas iniciativas de sensibilização, nomeadamente por parte da DRM-PT, que teme que o estudo não seja isento. Segundo as próprias palavras da DRM-PT “Não se sabe se o estudo é favorável ou não ao DRM, mas tendo em conta alguns dos sócios e alguns dos patrocinadores da APDSI, não é seguro que o estudo seja isento, por isso é bom garantir que decisores políticos que estejam presentes saibam que existe um lado muito negro no DRM.”

Como sabem, parte dos meus interesses de investigação prendem-se precisamente com a temática do DRM e da gestão de direitos digitais, e a minha posição é marcadamente pró-DRM. Mas atenção, eu sou pró-DRM, tendo em atenção, que o DRM que existe hoje em dia não serve. É profundamente atentador contra os próprios direitos dos consumidores. O DRM existente hoje em dia é imperfeito e serve muito pouco os seus propósitos. A saber (e desculpem isto estar em inglês, mas a tese está a ser escrita em inglês):

– First, until now all the DRM systems are vulnerable. There is no single mainstream DRM solution (Apple FairPlay and Windows Media DRM) that can state that it has never been circumvented. They all have been circumvented, and more than once, and they will continue to be in the near future. Many tools populate on the WWW (QTFairUse, DeDRMS, PyMusique, SharpMusique, NSCdec and others) offering the opportunity for users to remove DRM enforcement from legally acquired digital objects and therefore circumventing the whole purpose of copy protection and rights management.

– Second, they limit the user’s experience with the digital content. Current DRM affects in many ways the user experience. They impose a restrictive usage of DRM-governed digital objects in such a way that is far away from what users are used to do with analogue content. Consider the following situation as an example. Wal-Mart in USA has started selling movies via-download (DRM-protected, for sure). The downloaded movies can be played on the PC-only and on a specific media player. If the user wants to watch the movie on a TV screen it has to plug in its PC. This is restrictive for the end-user, and with some extra dollars the user can order the same movie in DVD format and use it without any restrictions.

– Third, they are not available everywhere. Today DRM is not available for all platforms. The two most deployed DRM solutions that are responsible for the protection and rights management of most of the digital content available for legal acquisition (Apple Fairplay and Windows Media DRM) are only available on Windows and Apple systems. Linux users are not considered on this equation and therefore are left out of the process. This has caused in the past, the creation of circumvention mechanisms to allow Linux users to get digital content from the Apple iTunes music store.

– Fourth, do they protect anything? We have to face the fact that current DRM systems are weak. They have been broken and fixed several times and the general sense is that they offer little protection. In fact, it is known (and admitted) that it is possible to acquire a music track through the iTunes music store, record it on a CD-ROM and afterwards rip it without any kind of DRM protection. Is this the kind of protection content providers and authors are looking for? I don’t think so and robustness should be considered as one of the most important aspects for this type of solutions.

– Fifth, DRM cannot be imposed to end-users. Until now, end-users have been left out of the DRM process, and most of the DRM schemes for digital object governance have been imposed by the content industry. This gives origin to great barriers on the acceptance of DRM as a legitimate technology to uphold copyright on digital objects. Rather, it creates the awareness that DRM cripples the end-users rights and imposes unacceptable restrictions on the way they interact and use digital content. DbD is just one of the many examples of an on-line association (promoted by the Free Software Foundation) to irradiate DRM from digital content. DRM should not focus so much in the restriction of user’s rights but more on the positive aspects of the rights protection and on exploring on how it may improve the user experience and on the creation of new and improved business models.

– Sixth, they do not interoperate. This is one of the biggest issues on current DRM. Existing DRM solutions do not interoperate and do not allow DRM-protected digital objects to flow from device to device to be enjoyed by end-users. It is currently impossible to legally acquire content on a specific DRM-governed store and to render that same content on another specific DRM-governed device. These types of DRM restrictions do not make much sense, and are extremely crippling for the end-users experience.

Acho que com isto consegue-se perceber que os actuais DRM são muito limitados.

Há muito trabalho a fazer para proteger a propriedade intelectual neste mundo inerentemente digital, trabalho esse que deve ter em consideração *TODAS* as partes envolvidas (criadores, distrobuidores e consumidores).

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